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Waihou Journeys: The Archaeology of 400 ye...
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By: Sullivan, H. Description: Reunion of the Ngati Hako tribe at Tirohia. Oterewa Pa - Kopuarahi. Description: A brief history of the Pa. Waihou journeys : the archaeology of years of Maori settlement. Date: From: Auckland : Auckland University Press, By: Phillips, C. Description: Traces cultural change and development by Maori through the study of archaeological sites along the Waihou River on the Hauraki Plains. Ngaati Rangingonge - ngaa moorehu o Kaawhia.
By: Woolford, B.
Waihou Journeys traces cultural change and development by Maori in one region of New Zealand, from their first occupation of a very difficult environment through to the new challenges posed during the initial phases of European contact. As the Waihou River travels across the Hauraki Plains on its way to the Firth of Thames coast it passes through a very rich archaeological landscape, which was where many of the models about Maori culture history were developed Fig 1. These ideas now date back 40 years, they were not adequately proven at the time, and they hinder the development of new research.
Therefore, a new study of the Hauraki Plains is not only timely but has the potential to shed light on the fundamental assumptions in New Zealand archaeology.
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The aim of this research is to take a landscape approach based on the Waihou River environment, reflecting regional differences in Maori economic, social and political life. Raw data, derived from several different disciplines, relating to archaeological survey and excavation, environmental reconstruction, Maori oral histories and European accounts, will be presented and analysed within their own terms. In contrast, or in combination, this analysed data provides very strong material for research.
An historical narrative will then be used to describe the phases of occupation, and identify the multiple causes and influences of Maori cultural change along the Waihou. Finally, this study returns to the existing culture history models and suggests new ways to view the past. Many of the fundamental characteristics of Polynesian culture had been developed by what Roger Green terms the Ancestral Polynesian society, the precursor of Maori society by some 1, years Green Descendants of these people gradually moved eastwards across the Pacific, and after the discovery and settlement of what is now Eastern Polynesia, there was a period of frequent movement between the central island groups of the Cook, Society, Tuamotu, Austral and Marquesas Islands Fig 1.
This has been called the Archaic East Polynesian culture Kirch During this period the more distant islands were also settled, including Easter Island, Hawaii and ultimately New Zealand. Over time, long-distance two-way travel within East Polynesia became less frequent and eventually ceased Irwin , and different socio-political structures developed in each of the island groups. The resulting cultural variation is remarkable considering the years or less of relative isolation from their common ancestry. In trying to identify some of the processes underlying these different developments, various key factors have been suggested including population increase, environmental instability, intensification of production, economic specialisation and storage, changed settlement patterns with specialised ceremonial architecture, competition within island groups and increased stratification Kirch — In New Zealand this development began some time after first settlement variously dated — AD , so that by a very different, distinctly New Zealand, Maori society had emerged.
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Certainly by European contact more elaborate political structures were in place, as well as new styles of art and personal adornment, new developments in the concept of tapu, and greater territoriality Davidson Although many excavated sites along the eastern Coromandel coast represent the early Archaic East Polynesian culture and those along the Waihou River represent both the later Maori and early post-European contact phases, development from one period to another is poorly understood, as are changes within the major time-frames.
Archaeology began in New Zealand in the s with field investigations of early sites mainly located in the South Island Davidson — In the late nineteenth century, studies of Maori life turned to the examination of cultural histories and origins using synthetic Maori oral traditions. The popular reinterpretations of Maori oral accounts, developed by S.
Percy Smith and others during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, have been found to be very inaccurate and are referred to here as synthetic oral traditions, in contrast to genuine tribal histories. A second phase of field investigation in the s and s involved the collection of artefacts from a number of sites, and again attention was centred in the South Island with the notable exception of Oruarangi, an artefact-rich Maori fortification located on the Hauraki Plains Fig 1.
Archaeological discussions during this period also employed the synthetic Maori traditions as an historical framework. Modern scientific archaeology developed throughout the s and s, notably through the work of Duff, Golson, Green and Groube.
Oruarangi as well as other sites in the Hauraki Plains were prominent in these discussions. Roger Duff, director of Canterbury Museum, wrote The Moa-hunter period of Maori culture in , which became the first major twentieth century work of Maori culture history based on archaeology, and set the stage for later discussions about settlements in the Hauraki Plains.
Jack Golson, senior lecturer in archaeology at the University of Auckland from , wrote 'Culture change in prehistoric New Zealand' in , in which he used Oruarangi as the 'Classic Maori' type site.
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