It regards linguistic variation in its synchronic and diachronic dimensions as well as in its social contexts as important sources of insight for a better understanding of the design of linguistic systems and the ecology and evolution of language. Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Bomhard , John C. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. Ships in 15 business days. Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book!
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Write Ways. Teaching Language in Context. Grammar Matters. Australia's Original Languages An introduction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, Indo-European and the Nostratic Hypothesis. Leiden and Boston: Brill. An Introductory Grammar of the Pali Language. Kerns: The Nostratic Macrofamil. The Uralic languages with the most native speakers are Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian, which are official languages in Hungary, Finland, and Estonia, respectively. Other Uralic languages with significant numbers of speakers are Erzya, Moksha, Mari, Udmurt, and Komi, which are officially recognized languages in various regions of Russia.
The name "Uralic" derives from the fact that the areas where the languages are spoken are found on both sides of the Ural Mountains. Finno-Ugric is sometimes used as a synonym for Uralic, though Finno-Ugric is widely understood to exclude the Samoyedic languages. History Homeland Proposed homelands of the. His father, Mark Vladislavovich Illich-Svitych — , worked as a bookkeeper; mother, Klara Moiseevna Desner — was chief director of puppet theater in Orenburg.
His death prevented him from completing the Comparative Dictionary of Nostratic Languages, but the ambitious work was continued by his colleagues, including Sergei Starostin and Vladimir Dybo. He died in an automobile accident on August 22, , near Moscow. Selected publications Nominal Accentuation in. Austronesian languages are spoken in Madagascar. Nilo-Saharan languages unity debated are spoken from Tanz.
Indo-Uralic is a controversial hypothetical language family consisting of Indo-European and Uralic. Since then, the predominant opinion in the linguistic community has remained that the evidence for such a relationship is insufficient. However, quite a few prominent linguists have always taken the contrary view e. The hypothetical genetic relation between Indo-European and Uralic is rejected by most linguists and not supported by historic migrations. Greenberg : Are Indo-European and Uralic genetically related?
If so, do Indo-European and Uralic constitute a valid genetic node? The Eurasiatic and Nostratic hypotheses both consider Indo-Europ. Uralic—Yukaghir, also known as Uralo-Yukaghir, is a proposed language family composed of Uralic and Yukaghir.
Uralic is a large and diverse family of languages spoken in northern and eastern Europe and northwestern Siberia. Among the better-known Uralic languages are Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian. Yukaghir is a small family of languages spoken in eastern Siberia. It formerly extended over a much wider area Collinder It consists of two languages, Tundra Yukaghir and Kolyma Yukaghir.
History The idea that the Uralic and Yukaghir languages are related is not new. Pedersen included both languages in his proposed Nostratic language family ib. During the 3rd millennium BC, an intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Semitic-speaking Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. The Indo-European family includes most of the modern languages of Europe. The language family is also represented in Asia with the exception of East and Southeast Asia.
It was prominent alongside non- Indo-European languages in ancient Anatolia present-day Turkey , the ancient Tarim Basin present-day Northwest. The Indo-Semitic hypothesis maintains that a genetic relationship exists between Indo-European and Semitic and that the Indo-European and the Semitic language families descend from a prehistoric language ancestral to them both.
The theory has never been widely accepted by contemporary linguists in modern times, but historically it has had a number of supporting advocates and arguments, particularly in the 19th and 20th centuries. History of the term and of the idea The term "Indo-Semitic" was first used by Graziadio Ascoli Cuny , a leading advocate of this relationship. Although this term has been used by a number of scholars since e. Adams and Mallory , there is no universally accepted term for this grouping at the present time.
In German the term indogermanisch-semitisch, 'Indo-Germanic—Semitic', has often been used as by Delitzsch , Pedersen , in which indogermanisch is a synonym of "Indo-European". Several phases in the development of the Indo-Semitic hypothesis can be dist. Yucatec Maya writing in the Dresden Codex, ca. These indigenous languages consist of dozens of distinct language families, as well as many language isolates and unclassified languages. Many proposals to group these into higher-level families have been made, such as Joseph Greenberg's Amerind hypothesis.
Background Thousands of languages were spoken by various peoples i. In , Fortescue removed Chukotko-Kamchatkan from the proposal. In , Rasmus Rask considered Greenlandic to be related to the Uralic languages, Finnish in particular, and presented a list of lexical correspondences Rask also considered Uralic and Altaic to be related to each other.
In , Knut Bergsland published the paper The Eskimo—Uralic Hypothesis, in which he, like other authors before him, presented a number of grammatical similarities and a small number of lexical correspondences. In , Morris Swadesh proposed a relationship. Borean also Boreal or Boralean  is a hypothetical linguistic macrofamily that encompasses almost all language families worldwide except those native to sub-Saharan Africa, New Guinea, Australia, and the Andaman Islands.
Its supporters propose that the various languages spoken in Eurasia and adjacent regions have a genealogical relationship, and ultimately descend from languages spoken during the Upper Paleolithic in the millennia following the Last Glacial Maximum. This reflects the fact that the group is held to include most language families native to the northern hemisphere.
Two distinct models of Borean exist: that of Harold C. Fleming and that of Sergei Starostin.
ofydyfosok.tk - Encyclopedia > Nostratic language
Fleming's model The concept is due to Harold C. Fleming , who proposed such a "mega-super-phylum" for the languages of Eurasia, termed Borean or Boreal in Fleming and later publications. In Fleming's model, Borean includes ten different groups: Afrasian his. He was born in Gelballe, Denmark, and died in Hellerup, next to Copenhagen. In the fall of , Pedersen enrolled at the University of Berlin, where he studied with Johannes Schmidt. In he spent several months in the Aran Islands in Ireland to study the conservative form of Gaelic spoken there. Pedersen submitted his doctoral dissertation to the University of Copenhagen in.
The Afroasiatic languages, as they are distributed today. Afroasiatic languages ca. This speech area is known as the Urheimat "original homeland" in German. Afroasiatic languages are today distributed in parts of Africa and Western Asia. The various hypotheses for the Afroasiatic Urheimat are distributed throughout this territory; that is, it is generally assumed that proto-Afroasiatic was spoken in some region where Afroasiatic languages are still spoken today. However, there is argument as to which part of the contemporary Afroasiatic speech area corresponds with the origi.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken by more than million people, mainly in Southern India and northern Sri Lanka, with pockets elsewhere in South Asia. Epigraphically the Dravidian languages are first attested in the 2nd century BCE as Tamil-Brahmi script on the cave walls discovered in the Madurai and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu. Smaller literary languages are Tulu and Kodava. The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. The Cushitic languages with the greatest number of total speakers are Oromo 25 million , Somali A linguist in the academic sense is a person who studies natural language an academic discipline known as linguistics.
Ambiguously, the word is sometimes also used to refer to a polyglot one who knows several languages , or a grammarian a scholar of grammar , but these two uses of the word are distinct and one does not have to be a polyglot in order to be an academic linguist. United States , phonetics Adams, Douglas Q. The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages , are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region, chiefly in three Russian republics Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay—Cherkessia , the disputed territory of Abkhazia whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia , and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.
This language group's relationship to other language families is uncertain. One language, Ubykh, became extinct in , while all of the other languages are in some form of endangerment, with UNESCO classifying all as either "vulnerable," "endangered," or "severely endangered. A synthetic language uses inflection or agglutination to express syntactic relationships within a sentence. Inflection is the addition of morphemes to a root word that assigns grammatical property to that word, while agglutination is the combination of two or more morphemes into one word.
The information added by morphemes can include indications of a word's grammatical category, such as whether a word is the subject or object in the sentence. In the first example below, faster remained an adjective when followed by the suffix; however, teacher becomes a noun after the suffix is added. Therefore, the first case is an example of inflection and the latter derivation. The theory proposed that because this primal language had close phonemic resemblances to Turkish, all other languages can essentially be traced back to Turkic roots. According to the theory, the Central Asian worshippers, who wanted to salute the omnipotence of the sun and its life-giving qualities, had done so by transforming their meaningless blabbering into a coherent set of ritual utterings, and language was born, hence the name.
Bengtson The classification of the Japonic languages and their external relations is unclear. Linguists traditionally consider the Japonic languages to belong to an independent family; indeed, until the classification of Ryukyuan as separate languages within a Japonic family rather than as dialects of Japanese, Japanese was considered a language isolate. Among more distant connections, the possibility of a genetic relationship to the non-Korean languages of southern Korea or languages like Austronesian and or Kra—Dai, are discussed.
A relation between Japonic and Korean is also considered plausible by some linguists, while others reject any relation between Japonic and Korean. They are distinguished mainly by a few sound shifts notably affecting the pronunciation of original z and h. The Tuareg varieties are unusually conservative in some respects; they retain two short vowels where Northern-Berber languages have one or none, and have a much lower proportion of Arabic loanwords than most Berber languages.
The Tuareg languages are traditionally written in the indigenous Tifinagh alphabet. However, the Arabic script is commonly used in some areas and has been since medieval times , while the Latin script is official in Mali. Its existence is known through similarities in Eskimo and Aleut. The existence of Proto-Eskimo—Aleut is generally accepted among linguists. It was for a long time true that no linguistic reconstruction of Proto-Eskimo—Aleut had yet been produced, as stated by Bomhard Such a reconstruction was offered by Knut Bergsland in Michael Fortescue — has offered another version of this system, largely based on the reconstruction of Proto-Eskimo in the Comparative Eskimo Dictionary he co-authored with Steven Jacobson and Lawrence Kaplan xi.
Joseph Harold Greenberg May 28, — May 7, was an American linguist, known mainly for his work concerning linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages. His first great interest was music. At the age of 14, he gave a piano concert in Steinway Hall. He continued to play the piano frequently throughout his life. After finishing high school, he decided to pursue a scholarly career rather than a musical one. He enrolled at Columbia University in New York. During his senior year, he attended a class taught by Franz Boas concerning American Indian languages.
Herskovits at Northwestern University in Chicago. During the course of his graduate studies, Greenberg did fieldwork among the Hausa people of Nigeria, where he learned the Hausa language. The sub. Elamite is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites.
Elamite is generally thought to have no demonstrable relatives and is usually considered a language isolate. The lack of established relatives makes its interpretation difficult. Elamite cuneiform was largely a syllabary of some glyphs at any one time and retained only a few logograms from Akkadian but, over time, the number of logograms increased. The complete corpus of Elamite cuneiform consists of about 20, tablets and fragments. The majority belong to the Achaemenid era, and contain primarily economic records. Two earlier scripts of the area remain.
Together with Illich-Svitych, he was the first to undertake a multilateral comparison of the supposed daughter languages of Nostratic. He died on 20 July in Haifa. Retrieved Renfrew, Colin 29 May Times Higher Education. Retrieved 21 February The Natufian culture  is a Late Epipaleolithic archaeological culture that existed from around 12, to 9, BC or 13, to 7, BC in the Levant.
The culture was unusual in that it supported a sedentary or semi-sedentary population even before the introduction of agriculture. The Natufian communities may be the ancestors of the builders of the first Neolithic settlements of the region, which may have been the earliest in the world. Natufians founded a settlement where Jericho is today, which may therefore be the longest continuously-inhabited urban area on Earth.
Some evidence suggests deliberate cultivation of cereals, specifically rye, by the Natufian culture, at Tell Abu Hureyra, the site of earliest evidence of agriculture in the world. In historical linguistics, an Urheimat from German ur- "original" and Heimat, home, homeland is the area of origin of the speakers of a proto-language, the reconstructed or known parent language of a group of languages assumed to be genetically related.
Depending on the age of the language family under consideration, its homeland may be known with near-certainty in the case of historical or near-historical migrations or it may be very uncertain in the case of deep prehistory. The reconstruction of a prehistorical homeland makes use of a variety of disciplines, including archaeology and archaeogenetics.
Limitations of the concept The concept of a single, identifiable "homeland" of a given language family implies a purely genealogical view of the development of languages. This assumption is often reasonable and useful, but it is by no means a logical necessity, as languages are well known to be susceptible to areal change such as substrate or superstrate influence. Time depth Over a sufficient pe. Trans—New Guinea TNG is an extensive family of Papuan languages spoken in New Guinea and neighboring islands, perhaps the third-largest language family in the world by number of languages.
The core of the family is considered to be established, but its boundaries and overall membership are uncertain. The languages are spoken by around 3 million people. History of the proposal Although Papuan languages for the most part are poorly documented, several of the branches of Trans—New Guinea have been recognized for some time. The Eleman languages were first proposed by S. Although broken up by Malcolm Ross in , it united different branches of what became TNG for the first time, linking Engan,. Most of the major languages belonging to language branches and groups of Europe, and Western and south.
Current linguistic theory suggests that the Hungarian language belongs to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family. The Hungarian Academy of Sciences supports this idea based on the harmony with the Indo-European language theory, and its scientific support worldwide. However, some expound alternative theories of the Hungarian language relations.
Nostratic Linguistics: History, Current State and Prospects for Development
Rationale Opponents of the Finno-Ugric theory put forward alternative theories in response to two principal problems: According to one view, the relations between languages cannot be identified with ethnological history. The original Uralic and Finno-Ugric homelands are only the places of origin of the languages; however, within the framework of the Finno-Ugric theory, a Uralic origin of the Hungarians as an ethnic as opposed to linguistic group is also asserted. According to the alternative theories, the vast majority of the constituent Hungarian ethnicities have no Uralic connection whatsoever—genetically, archaeologically or linguistically.
Paleolinguistics is a term used by some linguists for the study of the distant human past by linguistic means. For most historical linguists there is no separate field of paleolinguistics. Those who use the term are generally advocates of hypotheses not generally accepted by mainstream historical linguists, a group colloquially referred to as "long-rangers". Background The controversial hypotheses in question fall into two categories. Some of them involve the application of standard historical linguistic methodology in ways that raise doubts as to the validity of the hypothesis.
A good example of this sort is the Moscow school of Nostraticists, founded by Vladislav Illich-Svitych and including Aharon Dolgopolsky, Sergei Starostin, and Vitaly Shevoroshkin, who have argued for the existence of Nostratic, a language family including the Indo-European, Afro-Asiatic, Altaic, Dravidian, and Kartvelian language families and sometimes other languages. They have established regular phonological correspondences, o.
The Proto-Altaic language is a hypothetical extinct language that has been proposed as the common ancestor of the Altaic languages. In the 18th century, some similarities between the Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic languages led to the conjecture that they would be a single language family with a common ancestral language. Dybo is known for his reconstruction of Balto-Slavic accentuation, the first ever attempted. His daughter Anna V. Dybo born has collaborated with Sergei Starostin on an etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages, which encompasses some 3, Proto-Altaic stems.
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See also Dybo's law External links Dybo, V. In historical linguistics, a macrofamily, also called a superfamily or phylum, is a proposed genetic relationship grouping together language families also isolates in a larger scale classification. More rarely, the term has also been applied to an exceptionally large language family, such as Afro-Asiatic.
See also Father Tongue hypot. The Inuit languages are a closely related group of indigenous American languages traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador. The related Yupik languages are spoken in western and southern Alaska and in the far east of Russia, but are severely endangered in Russia today and spoken only in a few villages on the Chukchi Peninsula.
The Inuit live primarily in three countries: Greenland, Canada specifically in the Nunatsiavut region of Labrador, the Nunavik region of Quebec, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories , and the United States specifically the coast of Alaska. The total population of Inuit speaking their traditional languages is difficult to assess with precision, since most counts rely on self-reported census data that may not accurately reflect usage or competence. Greenland census estimates place the number of speakers of varieties of Inuit there at roughly 50,, while Canadian estimates are at roughly 35, These two countries count t.
Beja Bidhaawyeet is an Afroasiatic language of the Cushitic branch spoken on the western coast of the Red Sea by the Beja people. Its speakers number around two million individuals, and inhabit parts of Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea. Native speakers use the term Bidhaawyeet indefinite or Tubdhaawi definite. As such, Beja contains a number of linguistic innovations that are unique to it, as is also the situation with the other subgroups of Cushitic e.
The characteristics of Beja that differ from those of other Cushitic languages are likewise generally acknowledged as normal branch variation. The Levant is the large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Arabian Desert in the south, and Mesopotamia in the east. It stretches miles north to south from the Taurus Mountains to the Sinai desert, and 70 to miles east to west between the sea and the Arabian desert. The term normally does not include Anatolia although at times Cilicia may be included , the Caucasus Mountains, Mesopotamia or any part of the Arabian Peninsula proper.
The Sinai Peninsula is sometimes included, though it is more considered an intermediate, peripheral or marginal area forming a land bridge between the Levant and northern Egypt. The following is a list of language families. It also includes language isolates, unclassified languages and other types. Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages.
The Semitic language family is considered part of the broader macro-family of Afroasiatic languages. Dating The earliest attestations of a Semitic language are in Akkadian, dating to around the 23rd century BC see Sargon of Akkad and the Eblaite language, but earlier evidence of Akkadian comes from personal names in Sumerian texts around 28th century BC.
Researchers in Egypt also claim to have discovered even older Canaanite snake spells: "The passages date from between to BC and appear to be written in Proto-Canaanite, a direct ancestor of Biblical Hebrew. From Indo-European data alone, this difference between 'I' and 'me' seems impossible to explain.
Based on comparisons to other Nostratic languages, however, some linguists e. Norquest cites many of the same forms and adds "Western Kamchadal" 'I' and 'thou'. Chadic only. A Cushitic verb suffix. See Proto-Indo-European pronouns for the whole declension paradigm. Verb prefix with exclusive meaning only in Svan. Exclusive meaning only in Chadic. Verb suffix. Bomhard For instance Philip Baldi : "No particular side on the issue is taken in this book" Baldi Sweet vii, — Pedersen as cited by Ruhlen, Ruhlen Bernal Black Athena.
Rutgers University Press. Sweet , The History of Language, cit in Ruhlen Greenberg His merit is not to have discovered the kinship of Sanskrit with other European languages, but to have conceived that there was a subject for study in the precise relations of one related language to another related language.
Cours p. Dolgopolsky, Aharon May 7, Bomhard, Allan R. Mallory, J.
Oxford University Press. Koerner, Sheila M.
Related The Nostratic Macrofamily: A Study in Distant Linguistic Relationship
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