The Islamic Intellectual Tradition in Persia


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ISFAHAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY – Encyclopaedia Iranica

Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. This volume gathers together the numerous essays by the Iranian metaphysician and ontologist, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, on Islamic philosophers and the intricate relationship between Persian culture and its philosophical schools. Brought together into a single volume for the first time, these essays span four decades of Nasr's prolific and learned scholarship on the development This volume gathers together the numerous essays by the Iranian metaphysician and ontologist, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, on Islamic philosophers and the intricate relationship between Persian culture and its philosophical schools.

Brought together into a single volume for the first time, these essays span four decades of Nasr's prolific and learned scholarship on the development of Islamic philosophy, as well as the general history of Islam, and expound his belief that philosophy is not merely a rational but a sacred activity. Get A Copy.

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Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Rather, the integration of modern medicine went through a long process that included both the reinterpretation of traditional theories by traditional physicians and the assimilation of modern theories through the prism of traditional medicine. One of the main Iranian scientific movements in the late 20th century was in the field of chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry.

The movement resulted in hundreds of research papers in peer reviewed international journals. Iran's university population has swelled from , in to 2 million in Iran is now a world leader in some areas like string theory.

Is it understood that we have to look for excellence, in some areas that we may be strong and that we may get strong at that so that will be the field of physics. So we began with that. It happens that the most active field physicists in our country were working on the string theory at that time.

So they tried to be of a school, so to speak, and we did know that that was the only way which was somehow independent of all these political fluctuations regarding war, regarding cultural revolution, all that, and we really tried hard to build up schools. So we have it now, string schools, so to say somehow. Malek Afzali has helped design strategies to improve health procedures, particularly adolescent health, reproductive health and family planning.

In the field of reproductive health, he has engaged policymakers and religious leaders in the planning and implementation of reproductive health programmes in Iran. Currently women's rights groups are among the most active social rights groups in Iran and are mostly involved in an effort to gain equal rights for women in the Iranian legal system by opposing specific discriminatory laws.

However, under the Presidential regime of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad , elected President in , women's rights advocates have been beaten, jailed and persecuted. The presence of women in Iranian intellectual movements science, modern literature, cinema, human-rights activism, etc. Such education and social trends are increasingly viewed with alarm by the Iranian government. In cinema and the visual arts, Shirin Neshat , Tahmineh Milani , Rakhshan Bani Etemad , and Samira Makhmalbaf created new cinematic styles which have attracted many from all over the world and in international festivals.

Persian poet and literary figure Simin Behbahani was nominated for Nobel Prize for literature. The Nobel Peace Prize went to Shirin Ebadi for her efforts for democracy and human rights, especially for the rights of women and children. Simin Daneshvar 's Savushun is a novel about the Iranian experience of modernity during the 20th century. Iranian writer and satirist, Bibi Khatoon Astarabadi was perhaps the first professional female satirist, critic and one of the notable figures involved in Persian constitutional revolution. In the early 20th century, Persian music enjoyed the emergence of Qamar ol-Molouk Vaziri , the "Lady of Iranian music".

Iran had undergone a phenomenal constitutional revolution at the turn of the twentieth century. The constitutional movement was concerned with modernity and human rights. It led to the establishment of a parliament in Iran. Mirza Jahangir-Khan Shirazi and Farrokhi Yazdi were among the most notable writers and critics of this era who sacrificed their lives for establishment of democracy and freedom in Iran. Mossadegh had sought to reduce the semi-absolute role of the Shah granted by the Constitution of , thus making Iran a full democracy , and to nationalize the Iranian oil industry, consisting of vast oil reserves and the Abadan Refinery , both owned by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company , a British corporation now BP.

He relied heavily on United States support to hold on to power until his own overthrow in February Some researchers believe that the Iranian Revolution was not a simple clash between modernity and tradition but an attempt to accommodate modernity within a sense of authentic Islamic identity, culture and historical experience. For others the Iranian revolution was a protest against the very political rationality of the modern era.


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The election of the former President Mohammad Khatami in May was through the emergence of a new political force, the youth. Inspired by simultaneously individualist and democratic ideals that are incompatible in every respect with the authoritarian values and symbols traditionally associated in the Iranian intellectual arena with Marxist and Heideggerian World views.

It is in this new social atmosphere that the emergence of a global community or a cyberpolis was able to reveal to the Iranian youth the true nature of instrumental rationality as modern universal standards. Saeed Hajjarian was widely believed to be the main strategist behind the reform movement of Iran. He allegedly showed the supremacy of politics as such over any religious norm when he said that the survival of the Islamic Republic was paramount and that no religious ritual should stand in its way.

This kind of decision, he states, means that politics are more important than religion and that this acknowledges the secularization of religion. In this context, he argues, it is possible to reassess velayat faqih and to reject its supremacy within the political field in Iran. While calling to build a new reform movement, Hajjarian believes that the reform movement started in , died during Khatami's second term. He believes that the reform project started by Persian constitutional revolution, has not been completed yet. The scope of 2nd of Khordad movement was much broader than President Khatami's reform plan.

The latter has been criticised for wanting slow progress and not producing a real democratic alternative for the current Islamic republic. When asked about this during Khatami's visit to United Kingdom, he said "You know for centuries we have been under dictatorship so we cannot get to a democracy all of a sudden, we have to go step by step" [31].

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After the Iranian Revolution , the Cultural Revolution and the Chain murders of Iran were two major campaigns that involved the imprisonment, torture, emigration, and massacre of Iranian scholars. Morteza Motahhari was the main theorist and thinker behind Iranian revolution. He is considered to be one of the most influential philosophical leaders of pre-revolutionary Iran and the impact and popularity of his thought continues to be felt throughout Iranian society many years later.

The unifying traits of these intellectuals include their recognition of reform in the Islamic thought, democracy, civil society and religious pluralism and their opposition to the absolute supremacy of the Faqih. The rise of religious intellectuals can be followed through the writings of Abdolkarim Soroosh. Soroosh's main idea is that there are perennial unchanging religious truths, but our understanding of them remains contingent on our knowledge in the fields of science and philosophy. Unlike Ali Shariati, who turned to Marxism to bring a historicist perspective to the Shiite thought, Soroosh debates the relation between democracy and religion and discusses the possibility of what he calls religious democracy.

Influenced by Persian mysticism, Soroush advocated a type of reformist Islam that went beyond most liberal Muslim thinkers of the 20th century and argued that the search for reconciliation of Islam and democracy was not a matter of simply finding appropriate phrases in the Qur'an that were in agreement with modern science, democracy, or human rights. Hegel , Karl Popper , and Erich Fromm , Soroush called for a reexamination of all tenets of Islam, insisting on the need to maintain the religion's original spirit of social justice and its emphasis on caring for other people.

Akbar Ganji had also been associated with this circle before he published his Manifest of Republicanism. Moreover, Akbar Ganji took a tour around the world in order to invite non Iranian intellectuals to join Iran's intellectual movement. Many Persian scholars believe that such interactions with world scholars would promote Iranian intellectualism and democratic reform.

Perhaps the most important achievement of this circle was training a new generation of Iranian intellectuals who are far ahead of their mentors and do not belong to any of well-established intellectual circles in Iran. Ahmad Zeidabadi and Mehdi Jami belong to this new generation of Persian scholars. The main thinker and theorist of this circle is Mohammad Khatami , former president of Iran. Unlike the reformist intellectuals, the neo- conservative intellectuals in Iran are in favor of the supremacy of the Leader and against concepts such as democracy, civil society and pluralism.

The famous personality among these is Reza Davari Ardakani, who as an anti- Western philosopher is very familiar with the works of Martin Heidegger. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions.

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The Islamic Intellectual Tradition in Persia (Electronic book text)

Return to Book Page. This volume gathers together the numerous essays by the Iranian metaphysician and ontologist, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, on Islamic philosophers and the intricate relationship between Persian culture and its philosophical schools. Brought together into a single volume for the first time, these essays span four decades of Nasr's prolific and learned scholarship on the development This volume gathers together the numerous essays by the Iranian metaphysician and ontologist, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, on Islamic philosophers and the intricate relationship between Persian culture and its philosophical schools.

Brought together into a single volume for the first time, these essays span four decades of Nasr's prolific and learned scholarship on the development of Islamic philosophy, as well as the general history of Islam, and expound his belief that philosophy is not merely a rational but a sacred activity.

Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages. More Details Original Title. Other Editions 2. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia.

History of Islamic Iran explained in 10 minutes

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