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On an economic level, many early promoters believed the eucalyptus could be used for making a number of materials: timber, fuel, medicine, wood pulp, honey, and both medicinal and industrial oils. It all seemed too good to be true. Later, it turned out, it was. The eucalyptus goes to California: Following its spread throughout Europe, northern Africa, India, and South America, settlers in California became increasingly interested in the eucalyptus. Not only was eucalyptus a fascinating novelty, but the California Gold Rush of the late s and early s created high demand for wood for constructing buildings and for fuel.
Deforestation had become a serious concern, so much so that the California Tree Culture Act of was created to encourage people to plant more trees, particularly along roads. Many entrepreneurs rushed to capitalize on the situation. On his ranch, among many different types of produce trees including olives, walnuts, and figs , he grew over acres of eucalyptus. The eucalyptus forest he started lives on to this day at the Ellwood Bluffs. Cooper became a vocal advocate for the eucalyptus, emphasizing its unique, aesthetically pleasing appearance, as well as its useful qualities.
He even wrote the first book in the U.
Eucalyptus became very appealing to foresters in the s and s as native hardwoods were being severely depleted. Starting in the s, the first large-scale commercial planting of the blue gum eucalyptus E. The blue gum, a mid-sized eucalyptus reaching around to over feet tall, is the most common eucalyptus in California. These trees are easily recognized by their waxy blue leaves and a grayish bark which reveals a smooth, contrasting yellowish surface when the bark sheds off in long strips. As with many other eucalyptus species, sprouts can grow back from a fallen tree stump.
By the early s, the get-rich mindset had caused many aspiring forest tycoons to plant countless acres of eucalyptus in hopes of selling the timber for a tidy profit.
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Sadly, most of these schemes went the way they infamously did for Frank C. Havens was an Oakland developer who opened a mill and planted eight million eucalyptus trees in a mile-long strip from Berkeley through Oakland. But when he came to sell the timber, it was found that the trees were too young to make suitable wood; the young wood had an irregular grain and it bent, cracked, and shrank when dried. It is true that eucalyptus trees from Australia could make good timber, but those trees were decades or sometimes centuries old.
It was soon found that eucalyptus trees would need to be at least 75 or years old for good lumber. Havens closed shop. Buzzard, Melbourne, , pp. Massina, Melbourne, , pp. Details Bosisto, Joseph, 'Mr. Churchill, London, , pp. Churchill, London, , p. J, Brooker, M. H, Chippendale, G. Details Bren, J.
Details Bren, Leon James, 'The numeric prediction of hydrologic processes on a small, forested catchment', PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, , pp. Details Bren, L. Leon James , The hydrology of small forested catchments in north eastern Victoria. Details Bohte, A. South-eastern Australia -- v. South-western and southern Australia -- v. Northern Australia. Details Brooks, Albert Ellison, Australian native plants for home gardens , 1st edn, Lothian, Melbourne, , pp.
The Great Eucalyptus Debate
Details Brown, A. Details Butchart, Eva and Veitch, E. Myrtaceae ', Australian Systematic Botany , vol. Baker on dolerite in Tasmania. Details Byrne, M. Details Burke, J. Details Byrne, M and Hopper, SD, 'Granite outcrops as ancient islands in old landscapes: evidence from the phylogeography and population genetics of Eucalyptus caesia Myrtaceae in Western Australia. Baker in multi-aged forests. The effects of fire on mortality and seedling establishment. Sapling growth and its environmental correlates. Intraspecific allelopathy, competition between adult and juvenile for moisture and nutrients, and frost damage to seedlings.
Details Burbidge, Nancy T. Details Briggs, B. Details Bentham, George, Labiatarum genera et species: A description of the genera and species of plants of the order labiatae, with their general history, characters, affinities, and geographical distribution , J. Ridgway and sons, London, Details Bentham, George, Flora hongkongensis: a description of the flowering plants and ferns of the island of Hongkong , L. Reeve, London, , pp.
Details Bar-Ness, Y. Details Byrne M. Baradat, W. Adams and G. Muller-Stark eds , Population genetics and genetic conservation of forest trees. Studies on Northern Australian species of Eucalyptus. Details C Connell, M. Johnson forest. Details Connell, M. Details Costermans, L. Leon F. Details Cunningham, T. Bulletin No. Details Calder J. The rubber cuticle and other studies of the Corymbosae , Phytoglyph Press, Canberra, , pp.
Details Chippendale, G. Details Collins, David J. Part 9', Chemistry in Australia , vol. Part 10', Chemistry in Australia , vol. Details Coppen, John J. Details Cromer, R. Details Considen, D. Details Cowley, K. Details C. Kerruish, W. Rawlins ed. Details Chippendale, George McCartney ed. Details Clarke, I. Details Cremer, K. B, 'Early stages of plant succession following the complete felling and burning of Eucalyptus regnans forest in the Florentine Valley, Tasmania.
Version 1. Part 8', Chemistry in Australia , vol. Cramer, Lehre, Y, Details Clarke, Philip A. Details Cremer, Kurt W.
The Eucalyptus: A Natural And Commercial History Of The Gum Tree (Center Books In Natural History)
Details Coplan, Peter B. Details Carr, S. The phloem and the pith. Details D Drinnan, A. Details Drinnan, A. Myrtaceae ', Thesis, University of Melbourne, , pp. Details Doughty, Robin W. Details Dunlop, C. Details Dwyer, J. Details Doran, John C. Details Dexter, B. Details Drinnan, Andrew N. Barrie , Flooding and regeneration of river red gum, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Dehnh.
Details Deane, H. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, Details Department of Land and Water Conservation. Victorian Branch. Australian Systematic Botany', vol. Details Duretto, M.
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Details Dexter, Barrie D. Details E Ellis, R. Australian', Australian Forestry , vol. Details Ellis, R. Dahl's Journey , Bjarne K. Dahl Trust, [Melbourne], , 33 pp. Details Eldridge, Ken Kenneth George [et. Details Eichler, Hansjorg, Supplement to J.
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