Their intelligent optimism that those dilemmas can be met is as encouraging as it is challenging for those of us who have to do just that. Having read the insights in this book I now understand how their business advice was always so pertinent". Theories of Consumption. A Better Way of Doing Business? Leadership in Organizations. Those firms in the start-up stage and facing low levels of environment uncertainty tend to exploit in the absence of unit interdependence. Therefore, to be more rigorous, we propose that when firms are in the development stage or their external environment is uncertain, entrepreneurial bricolage and unit interdependence are complementary.
This paper starts from research on the antecedents of ambidexterity. Incorporating neo-configuratioal thinking into the paradoxical view of ambidexterity, we extend the work of Koryak et al. We admit that separately examining the antecedents of exploration and exploitation, as well as distinguishing differentiating antecedents from integrative antecedents, is a strategy that may be more conducive to finding a balance between exploration and exploitation in the process of obtaining ambidexterity. However, by adopting a neo-configuration perspective Misangyi et al.
Furthermore, there are multiple paths or configurations contrary to one single model in regression leading to exploration and exploitation. First, we shed light on the study of ambidexterity. Different from the current literature that treats ambidexterity as a unifying construct Raisch and Birkinshaw ; Lavie et al. Although the previous work of Koryak et al. Moreover, we discover that there are multiple equifinal paths to exploration and exploitation.
These findings deepen our current understanding of ambidexterity. Second, we add the improvisational way of resource combination, entrepreneurial bricolage, as one of the organizational antecedents, instead of just considering the stock of slack resources. Entrepreneurial bricolage is a relatively new concept proposed by Baker and Nelson By coupling it with unit interdependence, another organizational antecedent, we look into the inner organization and uncover how composite antecedents combine to achieve exploration and exploitation.
We find interesting partial substitution and complementary effects between them, advancing current knowledge of the interplay of organizational structure and entrepreneurial bricolage and their conjunctive effects on organizational innovation. Finally, we have made a methodological contribution. Most of the ambidexterity research relies on regression analysis Heavey and Simsek ; Lubatkin et al. The application of QCA is seen as a proper method in doing research on complex causation Ragin and will offer more insights into exploration-exploitation and ambidexterity research.
In addition, QCA lies between qualitative and quantitative methods and, hence, possesses strengths of both. This methodology deepens our understanding of complex interactions between social phenomena and contributes to complexity theory research. In terms of practical implications, firm managers should bear in mind that every factor is in complex combination with other factors. Specifically, when dealing with entrepreneurial bricolage and unit interdependence, they should handle their relationship properly in order to achieve exploration or exploitation.
Like most of other studies, our work is not perfect and has certain flaws, and hence points to directions for future research. First, the antecedents we use here are environmental and organizational factors. In fact, senior management team characteristics risk aversion, performance feedback and past experience also matter Lavie et al. Future research may add them to configurations. These antecedents may give more insight and interesting combinations for the presence of exploration and exploitation. Second, our sample is mainly small high-tech companies in China, and the sample size is somewhat small though satisfying the requirement of QCA.
This limits the generalizability of our research results. Future research can collect more diverse samples and enlarge the sample size. Finally, the interaction between antecedents in the real world is much more complex than the QCA can capture. Therefore, applying QCA may only be misleading and conceal the mechanism behind the obvious results. Future research will need to combine QCA with in-depth interviews with founders and high-level managers. By using the 6-point Likert scale, we required the respondents to choose between 3 and 4 3 represents somewhat disagree, while 4 represents somewhat agree , instead of just choosing 3 the middle point in the 5-point Likert scale, granting more meaningful qualitative distinctions to variables.
In order to present the table in a neat and clean manner, we do not display variables according the sequence in the theory development section.
Ambidexterity deconstructed: a hierarchy of capabilities perspective | Emerald Insight
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