A Sketch of the Phonology and Grammar of Rajbanshi

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Language descriptions

Magi Bibaha This marriage system is quite popular among the Darais. In this type of marriage, the parents both from the bride and groom make all decisions with regards to the marriage. A third person, known as the kaliya, acts as a mediator and completes the marriage ceremony. This marriage ceremony is preferred with their indigenous rites and rituals. In this type of marriage, 24 pathi rice, 24 pathi maize, 24 ghaito jand booze , 24 dharni pig's meat and 24 chhangra rupees has to be given by the groom's family to the bride's family. Damari Bibaha This marriage custom is also similar to arranged marriage.

Rites and rituals are the same as in Magi Bibaha. Only the difference in this type of marriage is the absence of a gharti girl kalseudi which is used in the Magi Bibaha. Bhagi Bibaha It was the most popular and prevalent marriage among the Darais. In an 34 In this type of marriage just a boy and girl themselves eloped from the rodi, Chudkaa or from the haat bazaar.

In bhagi Bibaha when a girl elopes the boy takes her to his home. Within a week, the girl's mother, sister, or aunt visit the boy's house to take her back. This ritual is called khosera lyaaune. After bringing the girl back to her parent's home, a marriage proposal from the boy's side is expected following the same rites and rituals of the Magi Bibaha. Jari Bibaha Jari Bibaha is also very common is Darai community.

In this situation, an adulterous relationship occurs between a married woman and man. The first marriage ends when the wife and other man eloped. In this type of marriage, generally the rites and rituals are not performed, but the new husband has to pay some amounts as compensation to the previous one. Chori Bibaha Chori Bibaha, known as capture marriage, occurs very rarely. It occurs in the cases when the parents give permission for marriage to their daughter but the girl does not agree to get married.

In such a case, the girl is captured by boy during cultural ceremonies. In this type of marriage, the same process and procedures has to be followed as in the elopement marriage. Similary, in the next system, if the husband dies the widow can marry her brother-in- 35 Presently this system is hardly practiced in Darai community. The Death The Darai death rituals are related to Hindu tradition. However, in some respect they are very unique. For example if somebody dies they first take the corpse in the yard in front of their house and cover it with fish-net.

And then they call all their relatives and take the corpse to the banks of holy river or the stream known as ghat. In the past, the corpse was used to be buried but nowadays it is not. They have to burn it. The elder son has to light the funeral pyre. Rituals Darais equally celebrate Dashain, Tihar, Fagu, Teej, Shivaratri and other Hindu festivals with a great enthusiasm, but their way of celebrating these festivals are distinct from Brahamins and other Hindus.

But these days their ways of celebrating are being brahaminized. The Tihar has special place in the Darai communities. The special feature of Tihar in the Darai community is that who ever was on Barkhi due to the parents death during any time of year gets purified on this particular day. The relatives of the family in which a person has died, are not supposed to enjoy the festival. Bhaitika in Tihar was reported as one of the recent celebrations introduced and celebrated in a similar manner of other Hindus, which might probably, be as a result of demonstration effect 36 Darai, Darai people strongly believe on ancestral deity.

They equally believe on ghost, witch, gurau, etc. The door of ancestral deity, Kuwar warti, etc. Wine, hens, pigeon, he-goat are extremely necessary while worshiping those gods in Darai communities. For details of rituals of Darai communities see appendix-C. Language 2. Within these families at least sixty different ethnic communities or castes and a distribution of over seventy languages are spoken within the country's present day political boundaries Kansakar: Therefore, the kingdom of Nepal is a multilingual and common home of several languages and dialects.

Among them the Darai language is one which is genetically affiliated to the Indo-Aryan family. He has presented the following family tree. Darai language is quite rich in kinships. Like other Indo-Aryan languages of Nepal, Darai language also borrows some kinship terms from Nepali language. However, some Darai kinship terms are quite unique and typical and they are not found in Indo-Aryan languages.

The most common Darai kinship terms are given below with English equivalent. The following is considered to be the core of the system. The tables are meant to be read from left to right with the right-most column giving the English equivalent. For example, kinship table 1, when read from left to right, will give any of six renderings for the English relation 'uncle'.

Also to be noted and of interest is that age of aunts and uncles relative to the parents of ego is distinguished only for kin of the same sex as the parent of ego. For example, one must differentiate relative age of father's brother's, and of mother's sisters, but not of father's sisters or mothers brothers. Dialects of Darai Language Each language exists in a number of varieties and this language is the sum of these various varieties.

The varieties are uniquely associated with some external factors such as geographical and social factors, the level and standard of the participants, the social context in which the language is used, the topic and so on. As regards, the Darai language has got different dialects spoken in different geographical and social boundaries. During field studies, it is found that the Darai language spoken in Chitwan district is different from that of Damauli. It is highly influenced by Nepali and Tharau language.

In the same way, Damauli dialect of Darai language is different from that of Pipaltar, Tanahu district. It is influenced by Nepali, Magar, Gurung and Newar languages. However, the Pipaltar dialect of Darai language remains less influenced by other languages. Thus the present studies show that Chitwan, Damauli, and Pipaltar are the three major dialects of Darai language.

All three names are exonyms, and the speakers themselves, regardless of their dialect, refer to their local language simply as Darai Kura Kura is a Nepali word for 'langauge'. Chitwan Damauli Pipaltar English gloss 1. The count between Chitwan and Damauli, for example, is 57 percent. Intelligibility between Chitwan and Pipaltar is lower in comparison to Chitwan and Damauli. Forms of Address and Honorificity 'Forms of Address' refers to the pronominal system of language.

In other words the pronouns which we use to address when we speak to a person or persons. Darai pronominal system is wonderful in comparison to other Indo-Aryan languages of Nepal. There is just only one pronoun of address, i. It is equivalent to English 'you'. A son and a father use the same form to address each other, e. In this case -meu is attached at the final of the main verb, e. Author recording Darai texts: 47 Chapter Three Phonology 3. This chapter is a description of Darai phonology. It deals with the consonant and vowel phonemes, syllable structure, and their phonotactic behaviour in Darai.

However, we do not support the consonant system described by Kotapish and Kotapish. According to our data, there are twenty nine consonants in Darai. Examples in support of this statement may be found in the above data. Examples are listed below: 62 Nasalization in Darai Darai has not the system of nasalization in its own.

No consistent nasalization is found in Darai language. So nasalization is not contrastive in this language. However, in some Nepali borrowed words, it does occur, e. There are five distinct and contrastive syllable types. Each is illustrated with proper data below. Stress and Tone Stress is not phonemic in Darai. Tone is also not distinctive in the Darai language.

A word with high tone or low tone does not make any difference in meaning. Chapter Four Morphology 4. This chapter is a description of basic Darai morphology. It deals with the various word classes in Darai- nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc — together with their grammatical characteristics. Pronouns and nouns are described first and we will show that they display all the prototypical characteristics expected cross-linguistically of that class. The same type of prototypical syntactic and semantic criteria can be applied to a definition of other word classes as well.

The section 4. It can be illustrated with the help of following diagram. Non-honorific Non-human te Non-feminine ke? F 'The daughter came. F 'Who came? More or less the same case marker and postpositions are used both for nouns and pronouns but used in expressing various case relationships, pronouns are subject to special morphophonemic alternations.

See 4. The nominative is the unmarked case in Darai pronouns. The dative is marked by the case marker -ke e. But in case of third person plural only one case marker, i. However, that 3rd pl. The proximate demonstrative pronouns refer to the person or object which is near and within sight, while the remote demonstrative pronouns refer to the person or object which is either far and within sight or not necessary within sight. Human this who be-Nonpast 'Who is this? Non-human this what be-Nonpast 'What is this? Human that who be-Nonpast 'Who is that?

Non-human that what be-Nonpast 'What is that? For detail see section 4. But reduplication in these pronouns give distributive meaning, e. Gender distinction, for example, commonly affect syntactic behaviour within the noun phrase NP , as well as broader, clause based agreement properties with the verb, adjective, genitive and some other item in the syntactic construction.

Gender, number and case are the basic morpho-syntactic criteria by which Darai nouns can be classified. This trend is highly productive in most of the Indo-Aryan languages of South- Asia. However, grammatical gender is restricted to very limited instances in Darai. There is natural gender system in other forms. In this case, separate lexical items are found for masculine and feminine nouns, e.

It falls between a numeral and a noun in a typical noun phrase construction. The classifier indicates countabilities, e. The nominative and accusative cases are marked as verbal suffixes. The nominative case is unmarked. When an agent or force is the subject of an intransitive clause, it is in the nominative case, e. The genitive case in Darai is marked by the postpostion -ko and occurs only on nouns 3rd person pronouns. The noun phrase in genitive case basically performs a modifying function and qualifies the noun or the 83 The conjugation of the verb form is the most unique part of Darai verb.

Darai is rich in verb morphology compared to nominal morphology. It is a pronominalized language. It can be categorized as a language with complex pronominalization. Darai can be compared to Maithili among the Indo-Aryan languages which have complex pronominalization. The rest of the Indo-Aryan languages are non-pronominalized language. In terms of verb morphology, two classes can be distinguished for Darai, the transitive and intransitive.

This section deals with basic verb morphology of Darai. The organization of this section is as follows: 4. In this sense, there are mainly two gender: feminine and non-feminine, e. NF 'The son came. NF 'The father went. F 'The mother went. F ' She ate. A detailed discussion of verb stem is given below; and attempt is also made to isolate morphemes. It should be born in mind, though that in a fusional language like Darai it is not always possible to distinctly analyze and isolate each and every morpheme.

Upon closer scrutiny, one discovers that a single morpheme may represent more than one grammatical function and is the marker of person, tense, mood, aspect and gender all at once. As it is clearly shown in the examples They are regarded as first or basic stems, e.

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They are formed by adding different kinds of derivational suffixes to different types of stems verbal or non-verbal, e. The above examples are the examples of derivational stems in Darai. However, these are especially causative stems. On the basis of change that occur in root morpheme, it can be divided into two types. In the first type, the root vowel is not changed in the process of causativization. It has been shown in the examples 50a-d. In the second type, the vowel is changed in the process of causativization 50e.

There are two major aspects in Darai they are i imperfective, and ii Perfective. It is an explicit reference to the internal temporal structure of a situation, viewing from within; as also will be general point that imperfectivity is not imcompatible with 92 The imperfective aspect is divided into habitual and progressive. PST-2S 'You used to do work. PST-3S 'He used to work. I speak-HAB be. PST-1S 'I used to speak. PST-2S 'You used to speak. PST-1S 'I was speaking. PST-3S 'You were speaking. PST-1S 'I had come here yesterday. The inflections agree with the person, and gender of the subject.

The examples illustrate past and nonpast perfective aspects. It is formally a morpho-syntactic category of the verb like tense and aspect Palmer In Darai, five moods are distinguished: indicative, imperative, optative, hortative and probabilative. Not all of these moods are indicated by overt morphological markers.

There is no explicit marker signalling indicative mood. As in many natural languages of the world, the unmarked imperative forms of Darai are the bare verb stems themselves. However, in some forms overt morphological devices are employed in order to indicate the intensity or force of the speaker, e. However, such forms are not found in Chitwan and Damauli dialects of Darai. It is only found in the Pipaltar dialect of Darai. There is no difference between imperative and optative mood in Darai.

They are usually unmarked, e. It is because tense markers are only found in indicative mood. A non-declarative mood does not contrast for tense and aspect in Darai. Tense Tense is a grammatical expression of location in time Comrie It normally indicates the time prediction in relation to particular moment. This moment is typically the moment of speaking or writing Katamba Darai verbs conjugates for two tenses-Past and Non-past.

Only the time adverbials help to indicate the meaning of present or future.

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So they are grouped under non-past tense as in the examples. There is no number distinction. There is no number distinction is second person also. There is no number and gender distinction in third person. F 'I ate rice. F 'We eat rice. Causativization in Darai is mainly suffixal. It should also be noted that this trend is a South-Asian typological feature of Indo-Aryan languages. In Darai both intransitive and transitive verbs can be causativized, and an intransitive verb becomes a transitive verb when causative suffixes are added to the stem.

The process of transitivization though stem alternation and causativization of such intransitive verbs are illustrated in section 4. Intransitive Transitive 94 a. But objects in other person are marked in the verb, e. While examples in transitive verb. This is an example of 'speaker vs. The language constraints the speaker to be the object of the sentence for verb agreement. This may be the example of animacy hierarchy in Darai. Chapter Five Syntax 5. This chapter is a description of the basic syntax of Darai.

It deals mainly with word order, sentence types, agreement patterns, negation, causativization, passivization, relativization, coordination and subordination. Topics and sentence head normally occur in initial position. The basic unmarked word order of the major constituents of the sentence in Darai is SOV i. The following isolated sentences exemplify unmarked word order, e. Thus, the constituents of the sentence exemplified in 1 may be rearranged as shown below. Thus, Darai is basically an SOV word order language.

We now turn to word order within the noun phrase NP. The attributive adjectives A and genitive 10 FEM goat. FEM 'The red goat. This is the characteristic of South-Asian languages. This generalization holds true for Darai as well. These are declarative, imperative, exclamatory, and hortative. Can feature and find straw sind of this called to move apps with them. The electron is Abstract continued fed to Thank with some description funds.

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Luanda: Mayamba Editora, Daeleman, Jan. Wesmael-Charlier, Diccionario de la lengua conga residual en Cuba. Santiago de Cuba: Casa del Caribe, Inocente, Luntadila Nlandu. Kunzika, Emanuel. Luanda: Nzila, Laman, Karl Edvard. Bruxelles: XX, The musical accent, or, Intonation in the Kongo language. Masembo, Mfumukanda M. Chacusanga, Alberto Graves. Luanda, Genebra: Charles Schuchardt, Introduction to the history of umbundu: L. Hamburg: Helmut Buske, Mfoutou, Jean-Alexis. Swift, Lloyd B. Kituba basic course.

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Foreign Service Institute, Cantos africanos em umbundo. Ruttenberg, S. LWD Hyman, eds. Anangwe, Alfred, and Michael R. Makokha, Grace Mbone, and Michael R. Makokha, Musa, and Michael R. Bashi Murhi-Orhakube, Constantin. Parlons mashi. Murairi Mitima, Jean-B. Parlons kihunde Kivu, R-D.

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A Sketch of the Phonology and Grammar of Rajbanshi A Sketch of the Phonology and Grammar of Rajbanshi
A Sketch of the Phonology and Grammar of Rajbanshi A Sketch of the Phonology and Grammar of Rajbanshi
A Sketch of the Phonology and Grammar of Rajbanshi A Sketch of the Phonology and Grammar of Rajbanshi
A Sketch of the Phonology and Grammar of Rajbanshi A Sketch of the Phonology and Grammar of Rajbanshi
A Sketch of the Phonology and Grammar of Rajbanshi A Sketch of the Phonology and Grammar of Rajbanshi

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