A grammar of Sidaama (Sidamo), a Cushitic language of Ethiopia

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Kawachi 2007

The Rahanwiin Rahanweyn clan confederacy speak various Maay dialects or languages. Af-Helledi is a Maay secret language used by hunters. Afro-Asiatic , Cushitic, East, Highland. An official literary language. Typology: SOV, passive, reflexive, causative, middle verbs. Different sources have this people referenced under different names with different population figures.

South central, Sidamo Province. People use Amharic as second language. Closely related to Borana Oromo, but divergent. Work in progress. People: Kambaata -- 1,,? Southwest Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya Region. Durame is the main town. Qebena may be a separate language. Typology: SOV, passive, middle, causative verbs, subject suffixes distinguish person, number, gender. Christian, some Muslim. There is some uncertainty on the status of the Macha and Wellaga groups.

The other sources are unclear. It is possible one or both of the Macha and Wellaga ethnic groups are beyond unreached status, as unevangelized or evangelized. Also in Egypt. Weekly newspaper. Daily radio and TV broadcasts by government and religious groups. Dictionary, grammar. Trade language.

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Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Northwest Amhara Region, north of Lake Tana.

Lexical resources

None in Sudan. Afro-Asiatic , Cushitic, Central, Western. A separate language from Awngi, Bilen, and Xamtanga. It is reported that all Qimant are bilingual in Amharic. Qwara is extinct, with all the ethnic group speaking Amharic. No evidence of a distinct Jewish language. Christian Qimant , Jewish Kayla. Survey needed. Awasa is the capital of the Sidama Region. It is likely these figures, from the Ethnologue, are too high, in light of the attrition of the long war, and successive droughts and famine.

Field workers with the Somali indicate the number may be more like million. Any figure is an estimate, as for several years it has been almost impossible now to have people on the ground for any comprehensive information.

It appears likely also, that numbers for the Maay-speaking population, previously included with the Somali totals, have not been deducted. Figures are murky. There are also considerable numbers, unreported and uncertain, in Canada and Australia, according to workers among them in those countries. Southeast Ethiopia, Somali Region.

Northeastern Province around Wajir. Dialect differences cut across clan differences.

Cited by other publications

Daarood, Dir, Hawiye, Ogaadeen are clan families in Kenya. The people are nomadic. Pastoralists: camel, sheep, goats. The language of most of the people of the country.

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Northern Somali is the basis for Standard Somali. It is readily intelligible by speakers of Benaadir Somali, but difficult or unintelligible to Maay and Digil speakers, except for those who have learned it through mass communications, urbanization, and internal movement. The Rahanwiin Rahanweyn are a large clan confederacy in southern Somalia, speaking various Maay dialects or languages Central Somali. Daarood is a large clan family in northeast Somalia and the Ogaadeen region of Ethiopia, extreme southern Somalia and northeast Kenya which speaks several different dialects.

Dir is a clan family with various clans in Djibouti, Ethiopia, throughout Somalia and northeast Kenya. The Hawiye are a major clan family living in central southern Somalia, parts of Ethiopia, and extreme northeast Kenya. Hawiye northern clans Habar Gidir speak a dialect of Common Somali similar to the adjacent Daarood clans, while Hawiye southern clans especially Abgaal and Gaaljaal speak the Benaadir dialect of Common Somali. Ogaadeen is the largest clan within the Daarood clan family, living in eastern Ethiopia, extreme southern Somalia and northeast Kenya, speaking various forms of Northern Common Somali.

Sidamo language

Those in Merka and Muqdisho who speak Af-Ashraaf, a distinct variety which may have limited inherent intelligibility with Standard Somali. Most of these fled to Kenya because of the current fighting. Standard Somali is used in primary education. The government adopted the Roman script in The Osmania script is no longer used. National language. Pastoralists; agriculturalists: sugar, bananas, sorghum, corn, gum, incense; miners: iron, tin, gypsum, bauxite, uranium.

Amhara Region. Afro-Asiatic , Cushitic, Central, Southern. A separate language. Smaller peoples speaking the same languge as the Arsi Oromo. Gabra may be Unreached, not world A. Radio Broadcasts are available for this group. Southern Ethiopia. Total land area occupied by the Borana in Ethiopia is about 94, sq. Roughly evangelical Borana believers live in Ethiopia.

No known outreach is happening among this group; no agency or group targeting. Central highland area, southwest of Dilla and east of Lake Abaya. Typology: SOV, causative, middle, passive verbs. South of Lake Ciamo in the bend of the Sagan River. A few migrants in Kenya. Deciduous forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. Traditional religion. Map Coordinates: 8. Roughly 30 evangelical Libido Maraqo believers live in Ethiopia.

Hadiyya, Kambaata, Gurage Region, northeast of Hosaina. Syntactic, morphological, and lexical differences from Hadiyya. Typology: SOV, passive, reflexive, causative, middle voice verbs. No missions effort commitment has been registered for this group. Dialect: IROB.

source Very close to Afar. They do not accept outsiders. They have suffered from recent famines. Smaller group related to the Macha, Tulema Shoa and Wellaga peoples, speaking the same language. Evangelization status is unclear. Rift Valley southwest of Lake Shala. Separated by a river from the Kambatta. There is interest in using Alaba for primary education.

Primary texts

Extreme southwest, Omo Region, near Lake Stefanie. Komso is the lingua franca. The people are bilingual in Wolaytta, but have resisted extinction for at least 1, years Brenzinger, Heine, and Sommer They are positive toward the idea of Baiso literature. The term Sidamo has also been used by some authors to refer to larger groupings of East Cushitic and even Omotic languages. In Sidaama, not all noun phrases have nouns. This can occur when it is so obvious what kind of thing the referent of the noun phrase is, that it is unnecessary for the speaker to mention it.

Sidaama has two types of noun phrases without nouns. One type is made up only of an adjective or a numeral , where the adjective or the numeral agrees in case, number, and gender with the referent of a noun phrase. This is shown in the examples below:. The other type of noun phrase without a noun is formed with a noun-phrase clitic , or NPC.

The Sidaama NPC appears in various forms. Which form is used then depends on the gender of the referent of the noun phrase, and the syntactic role or case of the noun phrase. When a noun phrase without a noun is formed with an NPC , both the speaker and the listener know its referent. In this case, the NPC attaches to the end of a genitive noun phrase or relative clause to form a noun phrase without a noun.

The Cushitic peoples or Cushites are peoples primarily indigenous to Northeast Africa and speak or have historically spoken Cushitic languages or Ethiosemitic languages of the Afroasiatic language family. Many populations in Southeastern Africa are believed to have Southern Cushitic ancestry from an ancient, now mostly locally assimilated population— a succession of societies collectively known as the Savanna Pastoral Neolithic along with Elmenteitan culture.

These early herders introduced pastoralism to East Africa and to the populations of Southern Africa, a lifestyle that still predominates in these areas, such as, for example, the Maasai and Khoikhoi peoples of East and Southern Africa respectively. Historical linguistic analysis and archaeogenetics indicate that the languages spoken in the ancient Kerma culture of what is now Southern Egypt and Northern Sudan were Cushitic languages.

Accordingly, a 4th-century victory stela belonging to King Ezana of the Kingdom of Aksum contains inscriptions describing two distinct population groups dwelling in ancient Nubia: a "red" Kasu population, who are believed to have been Cushitic speakers related to the neighbouring ancient Egyptians and Kermans, and a "black" Eastern Sudanic-speaking population that was instead related to Nilotes.

Awasa Mimeographed: pp. State University of New York at Buffalo. Milan: Mondadori. Bologna, Italy: E. Hamburg: Buske. Sidamo Province — Sidamo was a province in the southern part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Irgalem, and later at Awasa. Sidamos, esp.

A grammar of Sidaama (Sidamo), a Cushitic language of Ethiopia A grammar of Sidaama (Sidamo), a Cushitic language of Ethiopia
A grammar of Sidaama (Sidamo), a Cushitic language of Ethiopia A grammar of Sidaama (Sidamo), a Cushitic language of Ethiopia
A grammar of Sidaama (Sidamo), a Cushitic language of Ethiopia A grammar of Sidaama (Sidamo), a Cushitic language of Ethiopia
A grammar of Sidaama (Sidamo), a Cushitic language of Ethiopia A grammar of Sidaama (Sidamo), a Cushitic language of Ethiopia
A grammar of Sidaama (Sidamo), a Cushitic language of Ethiopia A grammar of Sidaama (Sidamo), a Cushitic language of Ethiopia

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